The Growth of Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia marina Seedlings Planted Using Guludan Technique in Coastal Area of Jakarta[1]
Cecep Kusmana[2]
Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
E-mail: cecep_kusmana@ipb.ac.id
Abstract
Some parts of degraded land in the mangrove ecosystem show specific sites covered by deep water body coulumn such as fishpond areas like at Angke Kapuk in Jakarta. So that, a simple appriote technique should be introduced to guarantee the success of mangrove planting in those kinds of specific sites. This research introduced guludan (dike) technique measured at 4 m (width) x 6 m (length) x 2 m (deep). Three units of guludan has been, constructed and be planted by Rhizophora mucronata seddlings with the spacing of 1 x 1 m, 0.5 x 0.5 m; and 0.25 x 0.25 m, respectively. Three units of the other same guludan also constructed and be planted by Avicennia marina seddlings with the same spacing with R. mucronata seedlings. Our obtained results showed that in the periode of 11 months (October 2008 to August 2009) the highest stem diameter and height increments for both two seedling species are at the spacing of 1 x 1 m and 0.25 x 0.25 m, respectively. The stem diameter increment was estimated at 20.94 mm.y^{-1} for A. marina seedlings, however, the height increment for both seedlings species was 27.46 cm.y^{-1} and 56.25 cm.y^{-1}, respectively. Its stem diameter increment increased with the increases of carbon content in the leaf, but no correlation with the content of the chlorophyll. The carbon content of the leaf was amounted to 53.5 % (equal to 196,4 g CO_{2}/100g) for R. mucronata and 55.4 % (equal to 203.4 g CO_{2}/100 g) for A. marina.
Keywords: Avicennia marina, carbon content, guludan, mangrove ecosystem, Rhizophora mucronata, stem diameter and height increment
Introduction
Recently, more than 50 % of mangroves in Indonesia have been destroyed by various kinds of causes. The prominent causes result in the mangrove degradation as well as mangrove deforestation are over-exploitation, water pollution and mangrove conversion to other non-vegetated uses (Kusmana, 2008). Those degraded mangrove are distributed in many coastal areas all over Indonesia from Aceh in the west to Papua in the east.
One of significantly degraded mangrove ecosystems in Indonesia is mangroves in the coastal area of Jakarta which covered the area amounted to approximately 264.65 Ha. The mangrove in this area were destroyed because of conversion to real estate, electricity facilities, highway, airport infrastructure, and extensive fishpond. The fishpond area is only the chance for mangrove rehabilitation, because this area is still as permanent forest areas belongs to the government under the management of Agriculture and Marine Services of DKI Jakarta. Nevertheless without subject to technology for planting mangrove in this kind of fishpond is rather difficult because of the deep water column (range 1 to 2.5 m). In order to solve this constraint, a simple technique was applied to planted mangrove seedlings in those fishponds, it called guludan[3].
Before this research was done, no information about the growtable of native true mangrove seedlings (Rhizophora mucronata or Avicennia marina) on the media of mineral soil using guludan technique, it is really a main concern of this research. So that, the research was aimed at measuring stem diameter and height growth carbon content, and survival rate of those two mangrove seedlings planted using the guludan technique.
It is hoped that if those mangrove seedlings able to grow well in the fishpond with the guludan technique, it is the chance for government as well as other sides to guarantee the success of fishpond rehabilitation with mangroves to substitute for already applied techniques using either large cans-filled soil or bamboo basket which were always failed for growing mangrove seedlings well.
Research Area
The research is located at the fishpond area in Mangrove Arboretum belonging to Agriculture and Marine Services of DKI Jakarta. This area spreads out between KM 22 and KM 23 along the highway Sedyatmo to International Airport of Soekarno Hatta, Jakarta in the coordinate position of 06^{0} 06’ 45” South Latitude to 106^{0} 43’ 54” East Longitude.
The fishponds in this area have the depth of water column ranged from 2,00 to 3,00 meter with the water salinity 28 to 30 ppt and the pH 6.88 to 7.52. The measure of the fishpond varied from 20 x 25 m to 25 x 50 m which was subjected to the tides through the canal from the sea located at about 300 m from the research area (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Research location
Research Method
Research Period
This research was carried out for 10 months (16 October 2008 to 15 August 2009).
Materials and Equipments
The used main materials and equipments in the research were bamboo trunk, nylon rope, sack, soil, mangrove seedlings (R. mucronata and Avicennia marina) 1 meter iron ruler, stainless micro caliper, and 20 meter tape.
Variabel to be Measured
Variables to be measured in this research were stem diameter and height of seedlings, carbon content of leaf, and the number of dead seedlings.
Research Procedure
The procedure to execute the research was as follows:
a) Construct the six unit of guludan with the measurement of 4.5 m (width) x 6 m (length) x 2 m (depth) each using the design structure presented on Figure 2.
Figure 2. The design and performance of guludan
b) Planting the 5 months seedlings of R. mucronata in the three guludans using the spacing of 1 x 1 m, 0.5 x 0.5 m, and 0.25 x 0.25 m in each. While 3 months seedlings of A. marina were planted in the three remaining guludans using the same spacing as for R. mucronata seedlings. In detail, the performance of guludan planted by two species of mangrove seedlings above can be seen on Figure 3.
Figure 3. The performance of guludan planted by the seedlings of R. mucronata and A. marina
Sampling Unit
The were 140 seedlings to be sampled for measuring the growth of stem diameter and height of the seedlings. Those sampled seedlings consisted of the same number of R. mucronata and A. marina seedlings. The number of planted seedlings and its sampled seedlings to be measured are showed on Table 1.
Table 1. The number of planted seedlings and its sampled seedlings for measuring the growth of stem diameter and height.
Guludan | Species | Number Planted Seedling (Ind) | Sampling Intensity (%) | Number of Sampled Seedling |
1 | Rhizophora mucronata | 30 | 40 | 12 |
2 | Rhizophora mucronata | 99 | 22 | 22 |
3 | Rhizophora mucronata | 336 | 11 | 36 |
4 | Avicennia sp. | 336 | 11 | 36 |
5 | Avicennia sp. | 99 | 22 | 22 |
6 | Avicennia sp. | 30 | 40 | 12 |
The number of sampled seedlings for monitoring the survival rate were all seedlings for spacing 1 x 1 m and the same as the number of sampled seedlings for measuring the seedling’s growth for remaining spacings. While, the carbon content of the planted seedling’s leaf was measured by taking 3 pieces of leaf from randomly planted seedlings for each spacing.
Technique of Data Measurement
In this research the techniques of data measurement were as follows:
a) Stem diameter and height of the seedlings were measured with microcaliper and iron ruler, respectively, with the measurement frequency for 3 to 4 months.
b) Carbon content of seedling’s leaf are measured with Gravimetry/Nembius Method.
Data Analysis
Our data were subjected to the analysis as follows:
a) Increment of the stem diameter and height of seedlings was estimated by the formula:
I = X – Y
t
I = growth increment
X = stem diameter or height measure of seedling at first measurement
Y = stem diameter or height measure of seedling at second measurement
t = periode of time measurement
b) Seedling’s survival rate was measured by the formula:
SR = A X 100 %
B
Where: SR = survival rate of seedling
A = the number of survival seedlings at certain measurement time
B = the number of initial planted seedlings
c) Carbon content of the seedling’s leaf was estimated in term of mean of the amount of carbon content from 3 pieces of leaf picked up from 3 sampled seedlings for each spacing for both R. mucronata and A. marina.
Result and Discussion
Result
Stem Diameter and Height Increment of Seedlings
The growth of stem diameter and height of planted mangrove seedlings in the period from 16 October 2008 to 15 August 2009 (10 months) is shown on Table 2.
Table 2. Average growth of stem diameter and height for R. mucronata and A. marina 10 -month- seedlings
Time of Measurement | Spacing (m) | Average Stem Diameter Growth (mm) | Average Height Growth (cm) | ||
R. mucronata | A. marina | R. mucronata | A. marina | ||
16 Oct 2008 | 1 x 1 | 7.16 | 4.95 | 103.33 | 62.96 |
0.5 x 0.5 | 7.43 | 4.83 | 104.25 | 57.84 | |
0.25 x 0.25 | 7.41 | 4.88 | 100.39 | 55.83 | |
16 Dec 2008 | 1 x 1 | 7.99 | 6.64 | 104.59 | 62.18 |
0.5 x 0.5 | 8.05 | 5.84 | 106.90 | 53.68 | |
0.25 x 0.25 | 7.93 | 6.19 | 102.14 | 61.04 | |
19 April 2009 | 1 x 1 | 12.61 | 8.74 | 108.11 | 62.67 |
0.5 x 0.5 | 11.23 | 7.34 | 110.34 | 67.44 | |
0.25 x 0.25 | 11.62 | 7.44 | 104.15 | 71.41 | |
15 August 2009 | 1 x 1 | 24.49 | 9.86 | 116.63 | 87.40 |
0.5 x 0.5 | 24.71 | 9.28 | 116.78 | 86.53 | |
0.25 x 0.25 | 24.69 | 9.15 | 121.31 | 103.07 |
In the end of 10 months measurement the growth of stem diameter of seedlings for both species were not showed significant differences. The similar phenomena was also for seedling’s height growth, except for the spacing of 0.25 x 0.25 m.
Those growth of both stem diameter and height seedlings for R. mucronata and A. marina followed the mathematical models of positive exponential (Table 3).
Table 3. The mathematical model for the growth of stem diameter and height of R. mucronata and A. marina 10 –month- seedlings.
Species | Parameter | Spacing (m) | Mathematical Model | S | p | R^{2} adj |
R. mucronata | Height | 1 x 1 | ᅀh = 0,692t^{1,36} | 0,018 | 0,017 | 99,9% |
0,5 x 0,5 | ᅀh = 2,691t^{0,661} | 0,167 | 0,295 | 60,1% | ||
0,25 x 0,25 | ᅀh = 0,460t^{1,6} | 0,184 | 0,143 | 90,0% | ||
Diameter | 1 x 1 | ᅀd = 4,875t^{1,88} | 0,094 | 0,063 | 98,1% | |
0,5 x 0,5 | ᅀd = 0,155t^{1,96} | 0,152 | 0,097 | 95,4% | ||
0,25 x 0,25 | ᅀd = 0,158t^{1,98} | 0,120 | 0,076 | 97,1% | ||
A. marina | Height | 1 x 1 | ᅀh = 0,778t^{1,34} | 0,412 | 0,349 | 45,7% |
0,5 x 0,5 | ᅀh = 1,051t^{1,44} | 0,066 | 0,057 | 98,4% | ||
0,25 x 0,25 | ᅀh = 2,104t^{1,29} | 0,117 | 0,113 | 93,7% | ||
Diameter | 1 x 1 | ᅀd = 1,690t^{0,452} | 0,025 | 0,069 | 97,6% | |
0,5 x 0,5 | ᅀd = 1,117t^{0,576} | 0,078 | 0,166 | 86,8% | ||
0,25 x 0,25 | ᅀd = 0,918t^{0,634} | 0,076 | 0,148 | 89,5% |
Where: ᅀh = height growth (cm) S = varians
ᅀd = stem diameter growth (mm) p = significant level
t = time (month)
The Mean Annual Increment (MAI) of stem diameter and height of R. mucronata and A. marina seedlings is shown on the Table 4.
Table 4. MAI of stem diameter and height of R. mucronata and A. marina seedlings
Species | Spacing (m) | MAI | |
Stem Diameter (mm/yr) | Height (cm/yr) | ||
Rhizophora mucronata | 1 x 1 | 20,94 a | 19,23 a |
0,5 x 0,5 | 20,82 a | 15,78 a | |
0,25 x 0,25 | 20,92 a | 27,46 b | |
Avicennia marina | 1 x 1 | 5,93 a | 33,36 a |
0,5 x 0,5 | 5,57 a | 37,98 a | |
0,25 x 0,25 | 5,22 a | 56,25 b |
The same word followed the number indicates no significant difference at significant level of 5%.
Based on data on Table 3, no significant difference of the MAI of stem diameter and height for either R. mucronata or A. marina seedlings between each spacing, except the height increment for the spacing 0,25 m x 0,25 m. However, the stem diameter increment as well as height increment between the seedlings of R. mucronata and A. marina each spacing were significantly different.
Carbon Content of Leaf
The average carbon content of seedling’s leaf ranged from 50,91% to 55,42% for A. marina and 51,16% to 53,52% for R. mucronata. It is the tendency that the wider the spacing, the higher the carbon content (Table 5).
Table 5. The average carbon content of seddlings’s leaf for R. mucronata and A. marina after 10 months of planting
Spacing (m) | Average Carbon Content (%) | |
R. mucronata | A. marina | |
1 x 1 | 53,52 | 55,42 |
0,5 x 0,5 | 52,71 | 53,41 |
0,25 x 0,25 | 51,16 | 50,91 |
Survival Rate
After 10 months of planting the all sampled seedlings grew well, so the survival rate as large as 100 %.
Discussion
The intraspecific differences for the mean stem diameter and height, except for the mean height of seedlings planted with the spacing of 0.25 x 0.25 m, were not large in both species, however, the interspecific differences in mean stem diameter and mean height were remarkable. Our obtained result showed reverse result obtained by Komiyama (1998) who studied the growth of cut pieces of R. mucronata and R. apiculata seedlings. This contradiction result might be caused by different treatments. In term of mean stem diameter, our result for R. mucronata was higher than of R. mucronata intact-seedlings reported by Komiyama et al (2007), however, its mean height was smaller than its reported by Komiyama et al (2007) and Aksornkoae (1975).
Our result obtained for the mean height of A. marina for the spacing 1 x 1 m and 0.5 x 0.5 m were similar with the research result reported by Mostafa (2004) who reported the mean height of 7 –year- old A. marina in Kuwait was about 35 cm/yr.
The increased growth rate of stem diameter of R. mucronata was higher than that of A. marina, however, it was vice versa for mean height growth rate in both species. Our result was confirmity with the result obtained by Aksornkoae (1975). Those species showed remarkable survival rate as large as 100 % in the periode for 10 months after planting. Its result was higher than reported in India by Untawale (1996).
The wider spacing result in the higher carbon content of leaf seedlings and stem diameter growth. It seemed that the wider spacing stimulate the higer photosynthetic rate to produce the higher organic materials which is mainly composed by carbon.
Conclusion
The intraspecific differences in mean stem diameter and mean height of R. mucronata and A. marina 10 –month- seedlings planted using guludan technique were not significantly different. It showed small range in each spacing. Their mean stem diameter ranged from 24.49 – 24.69 mm for R. mucronata and 9.15 – 9.86 mm for A. marina. While, their mean height ranged from 116.63 – 121.31 cm for R. mucronata and 86.53 – 103.07 cm for A. marina. The same facts were also occurred for mean annual increment of stem diameter and height for those seedlings. Remarkably, after 10 months of planting the seedlings for both species showed survival rate as large as 100 %. In this condition, the wider a spacing, the higher mean stem diameter and its carbon content of leaf which having the values more than 50 %. The growth of mean stem diameter as well as mean height of seedlings followed mathematical models of positive exponential, where the increases rate of stem diameter of R. mucronata was higher than of A. marina, however, vice versa for height growth.
References
Aksornkoae, S. 1975. Structure, Regeneration and Productiviting of Mangroves in Thailand. Dissertation, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Michigan State University, USA.
Komiyama, A., P. Tanapermpool, S. Havanond, C. Maknual, P. Patanaponpaiboon, A. Sumida, T. Ohnishi, and S. Kato. 1998. Mortality and Growth of Cut Pieces of Viviparous Mangroves (Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata) Seedlings in the Field Condition. Forest Ecology and Management 112: 227 – 231.
Kusmana, C. 2009. Optimalisasi Fungsi Ekologi dalam Pemanfaatan Sumberdaya Mangrove. Karya tulis disampaikan pada acara Koordinasi Pengelolaan Mangrove Pusat – Daerah dan Penyuluhan Startegi Pengelolaan Ekosistem Mangrove Daerah di Denpasar Bali, 4 Agustus 2009.
Mostafa, M.A. 2004. Growth and Establishment of Mangrove (Avicennia marina) on the Coastlines of Kuwait. Wetlands Ecology and Management 421 – 428, Vol. 9 No. 5.
Untawale, A.G. 1996. Restoration of mangroves Along the Central West Coast of India. In C. Field [Ed]. Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystems. The International Tropical Timber Organization and The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems.
[1] Paper presented at the 5^{th} Kyoto University Southeast Asia Forum, Conference of the Earth and Space Sciences, Bandung Technolgy Institute, 7-8 January 2010, Bandung
[2] Lecturer at Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)
[3] Guludan is a type of media in the certain area bordered by the trunk of bamboo for growing mangrove seedlings. Its consists of the pile of sackfilled soil in the underneath part and soil outpour in the upper part which is constructed in the fishpond.